A Primer on Multilateral Environmental Agreements

Author: Akshay Shandilya, Research Associate

  1. Bharat h. Desai, Multilateral Environmental Agreements 19 (2010). []
  2. See Nicholas A. Robinson, Agenda 21: Earth’s Action Plan, IUCN Environmental Policy & Law Paper No. 27, p. xiv. []
  3. Louise Kathleen Camenzuli, The development of international environmental law at the Multilateral Environmental Agreements’ Conference of the Parties and its validity, 2007, http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/cel10_camenzuli.pdf. []
  4. See U.S. v. Canada, Vol. 35 A.J.I.L. (1941), p. 684, more popularly known as “Trail Smelter Arbitration Case.” []
  5. Winfried Lang, Treaties as a Source of International Environmental Law, EOLSS, http://www.eolss.net/Sample-Chapters/C14/E1-36-05.pdf. []
  6. David Freestone, International Environmental Conventions, ILO Environment Policy, http://www.ilo.org/oshenc/part-vii/environmental-policy/item/744-international-environmental-conventions. []
  7. Bharat, Supra note 1, at 27. []
  8. The Declaration was passed under the head “The Magna Carta of our Environment”. []
  9. In Vellore Citizen’s welfare Forum v. Union of India AIR 1996 SC 2715, the Supreme Court gave its approval to the “sustainable development” doctrine; in M.C. Mehta v. Union of India 1991 (4) SCC 584 the Court evolved the principle of ‘absolute liability’, in Kamalnath v. Union of India 1997 (1) SCC 388 the Court evolved the “Public Trust Doctrine”; The “polluter pays’ principle” was held to be a sound principle by the apex court in Indian Council for Enviro-Legal Action v. Union of India (The Bichhri Case), 1996 (3) SCC 212. []
  10. Hague Declaration on the Environment, International Legal Materials, Vol. 28, No. 5 (SEPTEMBER 1989), pp. 1308-1310. []
  11. Romina Picolotti, Proposal for the adoption of Inter American Legislation on Human Rights and the Environment, Center for Human Rights and Environment, 3, http://wp.cedha.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/Center-for-Human-Rights-and-Environment.pdf. []
  12. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, UNEP Ozone Secretariat, http://ozone.unep.org/new_site/en/montreal_protocol.php. []
  13. The full terms are available at http://ozone.unep.org/Publications/MP_Handbook/Section_1.1_The_Montreal_Protocol. []
  14. Brief Primer on the Montreal Protocol, UNEP Ozone Secretariat, http://ozone.unep.org/Publications/MP_Brief_Primer_on_MP-E.pdf. []
  15. The General Assembly resolution 44/228 of December 22, 1989; UN GAOR Supp. 49, p. 151; UN Doc. A/44/49, 1989 (hereinafter UNCED). []
  16. Bharat, Supra note 1, at 31. []
  17. The full terms are available at: unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/kpeng.pdf. []
  18. Kyoto Protocol, UNFCC, http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/items/2830.php. []
  19. Id. []
  20. Article 2, The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: “Such a level should be achieved within a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner”. []
  21. See, Philippe Sands, Principles of International Environmental Law (2d ed. 2003). See also Pat Birnie and Alan Boyle, International Law and the Environment, (2d ed., 2002). []
  22. Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, Earth System Research Laboratory, 2006, http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/csd/assessments/ozone/2006/report.html. []
  23. Primer, Supra note 14. []
  24. Integrating development into a global climate regime 233, World Bank, 2010, http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWDRS/Resources/477365-1327504426766/8389626-1327510418796/Chapter-5.pdf; []
  25. Oliver, Janssens-Maenhout, & Peters, Trends in Global CO2 Emissions, PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, 2012, http://edgar.jrc.ec.europa.eu/CO2REPORT2012.pdf. []