Palak Gupta, Student of Law, Gujarat National Law University
It is the spirit and not the form of law that keeps justice alive. ~ Earl Warren.
Natural Justice is an important concept in administrative law. In the words of Megarry, J.1it is ‘justice that is simple and elementary, as distinct from justice that is complex, sophisticated and technical.’ It is ethico- legal principle. The origin of this principle is from the case of king v. Chancellor where Justice Fortescue held that first hearing of human history happened in heaven in Garden of Eden. Even God himself gave the opportunity of hearing to Eden. Principles of Natural Justice are the law evolved along with the history of human. P.N. Bhagwati in the case of Maneka Gandhi v. UOI held that principles of Natural Justice are a universal law. It has been termed as fair play in action in case of Re K. (H)(an infant) by Lord Parker.
Principles of Natural Justice are based on two maxims Audi Alteram Partem and Nemo Judex in causasua. Courts are bound to follow these principles while giving judgment. Audi Alteram Partem means hear the other side. The principle of Nemo judex in causasua means that no person should be judge in its own cause.It means that an adjudicator should be disinterested and unbiased. Literally it means that no person should be judge in his own case. It means that justice should not only be done, but should also seem to be done. Bowen J. “ judges like Ceasar’s wife should be above suspicion”.
Bias may arise either due to pecuniary interest or personal interest. However small a pecuniary bias is, it should disqualify the judge from being a member of the tribunal. Personal bias may arise due to blood relations, marital relations, friendship or hostility. For this principal it is necessary to prove that there is a real likelihood of bias.
Official bias is the most impersonal kind of bias. The administration itself is usually a party in many departmental proceedings before bureaucratic authorities. Therefore, an authority may have official bias towards the department to which it is attached, in a dispute between the department and a private party, or may have a policy bias. His bias may be regarding pursuing the policy, which is followed by his department. So when an official acts as an adjudicator he can’t completely shed off his bias, nor can he be said to be totally impartial or neutral. The difficulty, which arises in this situation, is whether the official is to be disqualified from acting as an adjudicator because of policy bias. Exception to official bias is the Doctrine of Necessity.
English law: just a mere interest a minister has in a scheme would not disqualify her on the ground of bias. This was held in Franklin V Minister of town and country planning.
Indian Law- the principal accepted in India is that a mere official or policy may not necessarily be held to disqualify an official from acting as adjudicator. The criteria for him to be disqualified is that there is total non-application of mind on his part or he would have acted according to the directions given to him by his superior authority and has not decided the matter independently.
The present case of Gullapalli Nageshwara Rao is based on the question of inquiry. Whether the element of official bias can be seen when the minister being head of the department gave the hearing and approves the scheme?
Inquiries: Inquiry is to be held by the concerned authority before taking a decision, it may happen that one body makes the inquiry and, on its report, some other authority takes a decision. In such a case, the inquiry body has no power to decide, nor the inquiry report has any binding force by itself. But the inquiry report constitutes an important link in the chain of decision-making process.
A Question which in such case arise is whether an inquiry under a specific statute is administrative or quasi judicial in nature? Some inquiries have been held to be administrative and some quasi-judicial requiring application of the principles of natural justice.
In India, the SC dealt with the question of official bias in this case. The facts of Gullapalli Nageshwara Rao v AP State Road Transport Corporation2, which is known as first Gullapalli case, are as follows: the petitioners were carrying on motor transport business for several years in Krishna district of Andhra Pradesh. The state transport undertaking published a scheme for nationalization of motor transport in the state from the date to be notified by the state government. It invited objections to the scheme. The petitioners, among others filed their objection to the scheme. The secretary of transport department gave a personal hearing to the objections and heard the representations made on behalf of the state transport undertaking. The entire material gathered by him was placed before the Chief Minister who approved the scheme. The approved scheme was subsequently published.
The petitioners assailed the constitutional validity of scheme under article 32 of the constitution before the SC on various grounds. The SC upheld the objections and quashed the order approving the scheme.
Contention by the One of the objections was that, the person who had initiated the scheme had also heard the objections. He was therefore, biased in favor of scheme, and hence could not have given fair hearing.
The court held that the hearing given by secretary clearly offended the principles of Natural Justice and, hence the proceedings involving the hearing were void. Another objection the court upheld was that since the hearings were held before one person and another gave the final decision, the rules of Natural Justice were violated. The majority held that since the ultimate decision taken after hearing both the sides was quasi judicial in nature, the functions of hearing and deciding could not be vested in two different persons.
Under the amend act, a minister was required to decide upon a scheme. In Nageswara Rao v Andhra Pradesh3, which is known as second Gullapalli case the competency of minister to give the hearing was challenged.
Appeal under article 226 of the constitution: Appellants moved to High Court for writs of certiorari to quash the order passed by the Government confirming the scheme and also to quash the subsequent orders made by the Regional Transport Authority canceling their stage carriage permits. HC rejected the petitions and appellant appealed.
- Whether a statute confers power on authority and imposes a duty on it to be a judge of its own cause or decide a dispute, which has official bias, the doctrine of bias is qualified to the extent of the statutory authorization?
- Whether the State Government, in the present case, acted in violation of the principles of Natural Justice?
- Whether the Chief Minister by his acts and speeches disqualified himself to act for the State Government in deciding the dispute?
- The chief minister who was in charge of transport department was incompetent to hear the objection as the same disability is attached to him, which was attached to the Secretary in charge of the Transport Department on the previous occasion.
- The Chief Minister by his acts, such as initiating the scheme, and speeches showed a clear bias in favor of the Undertaking and against the private bus operators and therefore on the basis of the principles of natural justice accepted by this Court, he was precluded from deciding the dispute between the said parties.
- Any kind of bias, whether financial or other, for or against any party, or any position that might impute bias, in a judicial authority, must disqualify him as a judge. But when a State Legislature or the Parliament violates the aforesaid principals, such statute, unlike one passed by the English Parliament, has to stand scrutiny in the light of the fundamental rights enshrined in the Constitution.
Respondent’s Contention (Advocate General)
In this case he tried to distinguish between “official bias” of an authority, which is inherent in a statutory duty imposed on it and “personal bias” of the said authority in favor of, or against, one of the parties.
The Chief Minister of the Government cant be disqualified from deciding the dispute merely on the fact that he had supported the policy of nationalization, or even the fact that the Government initiated the said scheme unless it was established that he was guilty of personal bias, and however there was no legal proof establishing the said fact.
Principle accepted by counsel for both the sides
If a member of a judicial body is bias, it may be financial or any other in favor of, or against, any party to a dispute, or is in such a position that there is a likelihood of bias he ought not to take part in the decision or sit on the tribunal and that any direct pecuniary interest, however small, in the subject-matter of inquiry will disqualify a judge, and any other interest if a reasonable suspicion of bias can be ascertained. These principles are applicable to quasi-judicial bodies too.
The judgment was delivered by Justice Subba Rao.
1. Regarding the first issue court referred two cases The King v Bath compensation and the king v Leicester Justices.
The decision in the first case was that unless the legislature clearly and expressly ordained to the contrary, the principals of Natural Justice can’t be violated. These decisions showed that in England a statutory invasion of the common law objection on the ground of bias is tolerated but invasion has to be strictly in conformity with the statutory exceptions. However in India, the law made by parliament or state legislature should be in concurrence with he fundamental rights, which are declared in part III of the constitution.
2. The question regarding that the chief minister acted in violation of natural justice, court rejected this argument mainly on two grounds:
- Since the appellants never raised the question regarding the competence of the Chief Minister to decide the objections on the last occasion and the court on that basis gave judgment. So now it is not open for petitioners at this stage to reopen the closed controversy or take a contrary position. It was also held that the minister was competent to give hearing even though he was the formal head of the transport department.
- There are no merits in this contention. It was held that there is a distinction between the position of a Secretary of the Department and the Chief Minister of the State. Under the constitution governor is to act on the advice of ministers headed by Chief Minister.
Under the constitution and the rules framed minister who is in charge of a department is primarily responsible for the disposal of the business pertaining to that department, but the entire ministry is responsible for the advice to the minister. But the position held by the Secretary of a department is different.
Though the Chief Minister made the formal orders, in effect and substance, the enquiry was conducted and personal hearing was given by one of the parties to the dispute itself. So the argument of the counsel that the Chief Minister is part of the department constituted as a statutory Undertaking under the Act cannot be accepted.
3. Whether the Chief Minister by his acts and speeches disqualified himself to act for the State Government in deciding the dispute?
It must be held that it has not been established by the appellants that the Chief Minister made the speeches indicating his closed mind on the subject of nationalization of bus transport in Krishna District. If these newspaper cuttings are excluded from evidence, the factual basis for the appellants’ argument disappears. We, therefore, hold that the Chief Minister was not disqualified to hear the objections against the scheme of nationalization.
In this case, the Supreme Court has clearly voted against the separation between the hearing and the decisional functions. Said the court, “if one person hears and another decides, the personal hearing becomes an empty formality4.” The Supreme Court decision emphasized on the fact that one who decides must hear.
Sinha, CJ in his dissenting opinion, gave several reasons for his view that the function discharged by the government was administrative. First, no objective tests have been laid down for the consideration of the government, such terms as efficient, adequate, public interest, were matters of policy and opinion. Second, the idea of hearing prescribed by the statute was not to invite claims by the individual operators, but to collect information having a bearing on soundness and feasibility of the scheme. Third, the government was as much interested in the scheme as the undertaking, which was the creature and the limb of the government, and, therefore, there was no question of the government functioning as an adjudicating authority between the two rival claimants5.
It has been criticized primarily on the ground of impracticability in the modern administrative process.
A scholar pointed out that it is unrealistic to expect the CM to give the time required for a public hearing, which could adequately explore all facts and policy issues involved and permit all interested parties to appear. On the other hand, if the entire delegation to subordinate official conducting the hearing is given, the importance of the ultimate question may be highly undesirable, perhaps even unthinkable. Thus a government is faced with a dilemma whether the official with final deciding authority must himself conduct the hearing or unduly delegate a power of decision, which should be retained by the Chief Minister, or of seriously interfering with other duties of the Chief Minister.
The Gullapalli decision is not in concurrence with the governmental practice, and is also difficult to follow. The judicial view on this point remains ambiguous.
Subsequent cases in which exception was made to official bias by applying Doctrine of Necessity
In this case SC has made an exception to official bias. Here SC has made an exception by impliedly using doctrine of necessity. It has got expressed approval in subsequent cases from the courts, namely Ashok Kumar Yadav v State of Haryana6, Tata Cellular v. UOI7, and Election Commission of India v Dr. Subramanian Swamy8.
In the case of Ashok Kumar Yadav v. State of Haryana, the State Public Service Commission did the decision about the selection process. This was challenged as according to Sec 3 (11) member of PSC by constitutional requirement has to mandatorily sit in the election process. The issue in this case was if the relative of member comes then is the selection process vitiated? SC held that even though bias is attracted in this case, but if the member doesn’t sit in the selection procedure then it would be unconstitutional as it will be in violation of Section 3(11) of the Act. SC by applying doctrine of necessity expressly declared that it is an exception to official bias. Reasonable suspicion of bias can be excluded if no substitution is possible.
In the case of Tata Cellular v. UOI, there was a tender for giving license for operating cellular mobile in 4 metros. The acceptance of tender made by evaluation committee has been challenged on the ground of bias. Director General of Telecommunication is the technical member of evaluation committee. His presence is required in evaluation of tender. His son who is working in one of the company has applied for license. So the committee has issued license to the son, the bias is thereby alleged. SC held that there is a remote bias. Bias in this case is not accepted. Here doctrine of necessity is applied, as no substitution is possible.
However it got a narrow view in the case of Election Commission of India v. Dr. Subramaniam Swamy. In this case it was held that mere necessity is not sufficient, but absolute necessity is required. Jayalalita was convicted in relation to land cases. Subramaniam who was a political opponent wrote a letter to Governor seeking for disqualification of Jaylalita by virtue of Article 191. Governor can act only on the basis of recommendation of Election Commission, so he referred the matter to EC. Jaylalita moved to HC, which held that EC can’t decide the matter, as there is personal bias because of friendship between EC & Subramaniam. Appeal was filed to Division Bench of HC. It held that single bench has erred in its decision. Appeal was filed to SC. SC agreed that there is chance of personal bias, but held that EC being 3 member body, constituting of CEC and 2 other members. So even if CEC is not present the other 2 members can decide the matter. But if there is division of opinion between the two members then only CEC will be called to decide the matter, only in case of absolute necessity.
This case is noteworthy as the Supreme Court made an exception by rejecting official bias and impliedly applied the doctrine of necessity. The doctrine of necessity got express approval in the case Askoh Kumar Yadav v State of Haryana, 1987. Further, the doctrine of absolute necessity was applied in the case Election Commission of India v. Dr. Subramaniam Swamy, 1996.
Since Gullapalli I, the SC has continuously diluted the stance, which it has adopted in this case. For instance in Gullapalli II the court didn’t object to the procedure that the minister heard the objections in place of secretary, as he was not a part and parcel of the department, which is concerned in making the policy. According to the court, secretary is a part of department while the minister is only primarily responsible for the disposal of the business pertaining to that department. In subsequent cases the Supreme Court appears to have further relaxed its attitude on matters regarding disqualification, which arises from policy bias, and the court has shown a further liberal approach in this respect from the departmental point of view.
- John v. Rees, (1969) 2 All ER 274: (1970) 1 Ch D 345 [↩]
- AIR 1959 SC 308,(1959) SCJ 967 [↩]
- AIR 1959 SC 1376, (1960) SCJ 53 [↩]
- I.P. Massey, administrative law (6th ed. 2003). [↩]
- MP Jain & SN Jain, principles of administrative law(5th ed. 2007). [↩]
-  4 SCC 417 [↩]
-  6 SCC 651 [↩]
-  4 SCC 104 [↩]